4) bloom [ ] – цвет, цветение, рассвет
5) shrub [ ] – кустарник
6) petal [ ] – лепесток
7) bud [ ] – почка, бутон
There is little doubt that roses are one of the most preferred and best-loved flowers in almost
all climate zones. Most lose their leaves in the fall, but some can be evergreen in very mild climates. Centu-
ries of cultivation have created an amazing array of flowers of every form and color. The smallest are a foot
high, with flowers as small as a thumbnail. The largest bloom with flowers as big as a salad plate. Red, pink,
and white are the traditional colors, but orange, yellow, black, and purple also can be found in the gardens of
Growing these shrubs is not complicated if their type and variety are suitable for the climate zone. Each year,
the American Rose Society publishes ratings of roses on the scale from one to ten, and the higher the rating,
the better the rose. The highest-rated roses grow in most climates, but those with low ratings do well only in
certain regions of the country. In areas with cool summers, roses with a great number of petals should be
avoided because they often fail to open. Also dark-colored roses don't do well because they do not develop
their full color. In hot-summer areas, roses can grow in any garden, but their flowers open soon after they
bud, and the color of their petals fades quickly. Roses bloom best during the spring and fall, and flower pro-
duction falls during intensely hot summers.
In areas with cold winters, some of the marketed roses are not hardy enough, and special protection is needed
to assure that they survive from winter to winter. To determine which roses are best suited for a particular
climate, a novice gardener may want to take a trip to a municipal garden or an established private rose garden.
Obviously, the varieties of shrubs found there will perform well in that climate zone.
Exercise 1 Answer the questions.
What is the main topic of this talk?
How does the American Rose Society rate roses?
What does the speaker say about growing roses in very hot climates?
What does a rose gardener need to do in climates with cold winters?
Exercise 2 Translate from Russian into English.
Самая прекрасная пора весной – время цветения.
Розы – очень капризные (uncertain) цветы и садоводы-новички часто терпят неудачу при разве-
дении этих цветов.
Когда они купили дачу, отец занимался постройками, а мама разбивала цветник.
Когда розы начинают увядать, бабушка собирает лепестки и делает из них вино.
Для цветов важно подобрать климатическую зону, иначе бутоны могут не расцветать, а лепестки
не смогут набрать цвет.
В королевском парке меня поразили зеленые кустарники, имеющие форму животных.
Так как я очень люблю зелень, мне бы хотелось жить в стране, где много вечнозеленых деревьев,
кустарников и лужаек.
Text 1 Read, translate and retell.
Although a few protozoans are multicellular, the simplest are unicellular organisms, such as amoebas, bacte-
ria, sarcodina, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans, which can be amorphous in shape and smaller than .001
inch. Cytoplasm fills the cell membrane that en-Line closes it and functions as a barrier between cells. The
membrane serves as the outer tissue, and any compound that may destroy the cell has to penetrate it to reach
Some types of organisms are termed colonial because they represent loosely assembled groups of structurally
similar and unifunctional cells. Colonial organisms maintain a symbiotic relationship within their particular
Unlike colonial organisms, almost all species of animals and plants are multicellular and include various
types of specialized or somatic cells, each with its own nucleus, genetic code, and RNA. The overall size of a
multicellular body is contingent on the total number of cells that comprise it, not the size of individual cells.
The simplest multicellular animals are hydras, sponges, and jellyfish, which have well-defined tissues, a cel-
lular nucleus, and an element of cell functions. Sponges have a few specialized cells but largely resemble
colonial organisms that can readily form a new individual group. If the cells of a sponge are separated, they
rejoin and continue as a newly formed colonial organism.
Text 2 Read, translate and retell.
When parchment, which was extraordinarily costly, was replaced by papyrus, it became feasible to establish
libraries. At the onset, they began as archives for record keeping and document storage. According to sec-
ond-hand reports, the most renowned papyrus library was the Alexandrian, founded by Alexander the Great
around 330 B.C. in Alexandria, Egypt.
His successors as rulers of Egypt, Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II, expanded the library into the greatest collection
of scrolls in the ancient world. To acquire this collection, the rulers borrowed scrolls and manuscripts from
libraries in Athens, Rome, and other localities and ordered them duplicated. At times, the library employed
more than 100 scribes and illustrators. Some historians claim that the Alexandrian library purchased entire
lesser libraries to contribute to and enhance the quality of its possessions.
The library owned a copy of every contemporary scroll known to the library's administrators and contained
more than 400,000 items, all of which were classified and organized. The contents of the papyrus rolls were
edited, and a bibliography of Greek literature was compiled and cross-referenced, reflecting the emergence
and dissemination of a highly developed Greek culture. Over time, a succession of leading scholars directed
this library, which was acclaimed for the scholarly undertakings it supported as well as for the size of its col-
lection. At one time, 72 scholars were engaged to translate religious testaments, historical annals, and mer-
cantile accounts. Although the library flourished, it was accessible to only a minority of the population be-
cause in ancient times the vast majority of urban dwellers were illiterate. Because papyrus was extremely
perishable, not a trace of the Alexandrian library remains today, and archaeologists have several hypotheses
as to what became of it.
Text 3 Read, translate and retell.
According to data obtained from radioactive dating, the oldest rocks found on earth are approximately 500
million to 4 billion years old. Similar ages have been determined for meteorites and the rocks gathered from
the moon's surface. Different methods of arriving at the earth's age generate very similar results. Modern
theories about the formation, development, and eventual burning out of stars suggest that the sun is about 5
billion years old. Experts contend that the earth and the sun were formed at almost the same time from a
cloud of dust and gas resulting from a cosmic explosion. The present rate of expansion of the galaxies can be
extrapolated to suggest that, if the universe began with a "big bang" about 15 billion years ago, an age of 5
billion years for both the earth and the sun can be considered plausible.
Long before radioactive dating was implemented, mythology and oral narratives alluded to a conjecture that
the earth was nearly 6,000 years old. The methods of computation based on the analysis of genealogical trees
in scant archaeological findings provide evidence that can be difficult to date accurately. Today, radioactive
dating of particles and whole objects has rejected this figure of the earth's age as unreliable.
Text 4 Read, translate and retell.
Sex-trait stereotypes may be defined as a set of psychological attributes that characterize men more fre-
quently than women. Thus, males are often described as ambitious, unemotional, and independent and, on
the other hand, selfish, unrefined, and insensitive. Females are described as emotional, irrational, high-
strung, and tentative. In spite of the egalitarian movement, recent studies have demonstrated that sex-trait
stereotypes remain common among young adults today. In fact, such stereotyping has proved to be the psy-
chological justification for social beliefs concerning the appropriateness of various activities for men and
women that further perpetuate the different sex roles traditionally ascribed to men and women.
The awareness of sex-trait stereotypes in the United States develops in a linear fashion between the ages of
four and ten. Generally, knowledge of male stereotypical characteristics develops earlier, whereas knowledge
of female characteristics increases more rapidly between the ages of four and seven. While the reasons for
this learning are not fully understood, evidence suggests that at the preschool level children's literature and
television programs provide powerful models and reinforcement for stereotyped views.
Studies designed to compare sex-trait stereotypes cross-nationally show a high degree of correspondence in
the characteristics ascribed to men and women. As findings have been obtained in other countries, two hy-
potheses have been advanced to explain the commonalities in sex trait stereotyping. One states that pancul-
tural similarities play a role in the psychological characteristics attributed to men and women, and the second
states that the general picture is one of cultural relativism.
Text 5 Read, translate and retell.
Even with his diverse experience as an elected official at the state level, Andrew Johnson was the only presi-
dent of the United States ever to be impeached, primarily because of his violent temper and unyielding stub-
bornness. His career started in 1828 with his election to the city council of Greenville, Tennessee, and after
two years as an alderman, he took office as mayor. His advancements followed in rapid succession when he
was elected to the Tennessee state senate, then as the state governor, and later to the U.S. House of Represen-
tatives for five consecutive terms.
In 1864, Johnson ran for the office of vice-president on the Lincoln-Johnson ticket and was inaugurated in
1865. After Lincoln's assassination six weeks into his term, Johnson found himself president at a time when
southern leaders were concerned about their forced alliance with the northern states and feared retaliation for
their support of the secession. Instead, however, with the diplomatic skill he had learned from Lincoln, John-
son offered full pardon to almost all Confederates on the condition that they take an oath of allegiance. He
further reorganized the former Confederate states and set up legislative elections.
Congressional opposition to his peace-making policies resulted in gridlock between the House and Johnson,
and the stalemate grew into to open conflict on the issue of the emancipation of slaves. While Johnson held
the view that newly freed slaves lacked understanding and knowledge of civil liberties to vote intelligently,
Congress overrode Johnson's veto of the Civil Rights Bill, which awarded them citizenship and ratified the
Fourteenth Amendment. In the years that followed, Congress passed bills depriving the president of the
power to pardon political criminals, stripping away his status of commander-in-chief, and taking away John-
son's right to dismiss civil and executive officers from their duties. Johnson vetoed each bill, and each veto
was overridden. When Johnson dismissed the secretary of war, Edwin Stanton, Stanton refused to step down
and was supported by the House of Representatives, which voted to impeach Johnson. At the trial, the Senate
came one vote short of the two-thirds majority necessary to remove him from office. After Johnson's term
expired, he returned to his home state, but in 1875 he was elected senator and went back to Washington to
take his seat.
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Hinkel Eli. TOEFL strategies / Eli Hinkel. 2 nd ed. Seattle University, 1998.